Singh's study focussed on understanding the role of Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) in the gut during HIV infection. The gut barrier maintains separation between commensal bacteria and the host. HIV breaks down the ability of the gut to separate bacteria from entering the host. This results in activation of the immune system. ILCs was discovered and shown to be essential for the ability of the gut to prevent bacteria from entering the host system. ILCs are crucial for rapid tissue repair and homeostasis; and stimulate epithelial cell proliferation at gut mucosal barrier sites. She hoped to use this information to understand the mechanism of gut break down and ultimately develop new treatment strategies to prevent AIDS.